Esther Howland of Worcester Mass is often credited with starting the commercial business of "penny dreadfuls" in 1847. By organizing workshops of women friends to each add their touch, to hand assemble, and mass produce a Victorian card, Howland created a cruel craze of sarcastic and insulting cards. These were seen as a response to the stuffy morality of the Victorian era. In spite of selling her valentines for one penny each, Ester Howland became a very rich woman!
Way to go Esther! She is one of my heroes.